Hormonal contraceptives: types, risks and side effects

hormonal contraceptives

Several scientific studies have warned that women who use hormonal contraceptives are at greater risk of thrombosis. Although hormonal contraceptive methods have greatly improved in recent years, the likelihood of certain diseases or ailments varies according to the health and habits of each woman. For example, women smokers and obese women are at greater risk, so they recommend other contraceptives. Each case requires an individualized clinical study and therefore should be supervised by a doctor.

Types of hormonal contraceptives

Contraceptive systems using hormones are:

– Pill: taken orally.

– Adhesive patch: it sticks in the body and the hormone into the bloodstream through the skin.

– Vaginal ring: it is housed in the vagina for three weeks while releasing hormones.

– Intrauterine devices: depending on the combination of hormones, they may alter the cervical mucus or stop ovulation.

– Sub-dermal devices: they are housed under the skin of the arm and are for long periods.

– Injections: prevent pregnancy for a period of time.

Side effects of hormonal contraceptives

The hormone treatments can have side effects in women who take them. Without being serious, they must be taken into account. Some of them are:

– Increased breast tenderness.

– Decreased libido.

– Weight gain [source].

– Migraines.

– Abnormal vaginal bleeding: does not have to mean anything bad, the doctor will appreciate it.

– The IUD can cause pelvic discomfort and longer bleeding.

– The vaginal ring and the adhesive patch may cause irritation in areas of the body in contact with the device.

– Depression: especially if there is a previous history.

– Urinary tract infections [source]: by reducing estrogen also lowers the vaginal microbial flora.

But the side effects can also be positive: irregular menses become regular, it disappears menstrual pain and cramps and reduces acne. Some of these combinations of hormones are also used as a medical treatment to alleviate diseases, without a contraceptive purpose.

Risks of hormonal contraceptives

The worst consequences of hormonal contraceptives that endanger the health and even the lives of women are:

– Thrombosis: doses of hormones favor the appearance of thrombi, with the risk posed by cardiovascular or stroke. It is therefore, necessary to know if the woman has any medical history that increases this risk.

– Migraines: can result in a risk of stroke in women with a previous history of migraines.

– Estrogens can alter the function of the liver. Women with a history of liver disease should avoid this type of contraception.

– Excessive cardiovascular risk increased tension. Not suitable for women who suffer from hypertension.

– You can develop diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia but it is not irreversible.

– Breast cancer is not fully shown that there is a direct relationship between hormonal contraceptives and an increased incidence of breast cancer. Moreover, detection of cancer among women using this type of contraception is attributed to higher gynecological examination to which they are subjected.